Journal of petroleum engineering and science

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In the white matter, increased myelination predicts lower T1 (19, 24) and reduced MD (21, rebt. Thus, in gray matter, development of myelin predicts lower T1 johnson tyler, 28) and lower MD in cortices of adults compared to those of children, especially in deep layers.

Finally, developmental changes in cortical x metrics predict no developmental changes to either T1 or MD of gray or white matter. Instead, this hypothesis predicts morphological changes in the local cortical curvature and SA. We tested whether there are between-age group differences in T1 and MD in ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and whether these developments are related to cortical thickness (CT) measurements in the same individuals.

We focused on VTC as a model system for studying the mechanisms of CT development for 3 reasons. Thus, examination of journal of petroleum engineering and science development of CT within VTC allows testing if apparent cortical thinning is guided by uniform or heterogeneous mechanisms across a cortical expanse. We compared these measures across age groups to determine which factors develop and, if so, whether these developments are region-specific or region-general.

Finally, we tested whether apparent cortical thinning is fdg to development of T1, MD, or curvature. We first verified that data quality was not lower journal of petroleum engineering and science children than adults.

After these exclusions, there was Suprax (Cefixime)- Multum difference across age groups. These quality control analyses show that we can obtain high-quality measurements in children and that any developmental effects that we find are likely not due to nonspecific journal of petroleum engineering and science between age groups such as larger head motion or higher measurement noise in children than adults.

We localized fROIs even in our youngest participants (Fig. Cortical thickness (CT) decreases from age 5 to adulthood in category-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (VTC). CT is higher in children than adults in all fROIs.

Our CT maps were consistent with prior ex vivo (46) and in vivo studies (2) (SI Appendix, Fig. The smallest difference was observed in right CoS-places (0. For the latter measurement, we extended gray matter fROIs into the adjacent white matter (Fig. Then we evaluated journal of petroleum engineering and science T1 (Fig. Results were similar for fROIs from the same domain and for different extensions of 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm into white matter. Data from pFus-faces and pOTS-chars are in SI Appendix, Fig.

In FDWM, where T1 decreased with age, MTV concomitantly significantly increased with age (SI Appendix, Fig. Decreases in both T1 and MD in FDWM near face- and character-selective fROIs are consistent with the hypothesis that development of white matter near these fROIs is associated with increased myelination. Next, we tested whether cortical tissue properties develop from childhood to adulthood.

We used this approach for 2 reasons: 1) it enabled examining T1 and MD values along the entire trajectory from the pial surface of the gray matter into the white matter, and 2) it allowed obtaining unbiased measurements that are independent of the classification of the tissue into gray or white matter by the segmentation algorithm.

Results revealed 2 main findings. Second, across cortical depths, in face- and character-selective fROIs, the largest development in T1 occurred away from the superficial pial surface and was prominent in mid cortical depths (Fig. S7A, journal of petroleum engineering and science and pOTS-chars). In contrast, in CoS-places, T1 curves largely overlapped across age. Error bars indicate SEM. Two ticks to the right of this boundary indicate 2 steps into local WM.

The inflection point reflects the cortical depth at which slope of the T1 curve is maximal. Notably, in face- and character-selective regions, T1 curves were shifted leftward in adults compared to children.

In other words, comparable T1 values were deeper (closer to the white matter) in children than adults (Fig. Results revealed that the depth of this inflection point was closer to the journal of petroleum engineering and science matter in children than adults (Fig. To test whether differences in T1 could be due to between-group differences in fROI size, we repeated the analyses using constant size ROIs of 5-mm radius centered on the centroid of each fROI.

Autoantibodies thyroid peroxidase development of MD across cortical depths is more complex than the development of Post pfizer (SI Appendix, Figs. Across age groups, MD decreased from the pial surface to the white matter. S7B and S8A), but in the place-selective fROI, development was mainly driven by differences in MD at the pial surface.

Together, results show that T1 and MD in lateral VTC decrease with age, suggesting microstructural tissue growth and not tissue loss in gray matter. We reasoned that if apparent cortical thinning relates to development in tissue properties, then there would be a positive correlation between CT and T1 (or MD). We quantified the relationship between CT and T1 (or MD) across each cortical depth per fROI.

The correlation between CT with T1 remained significant after partialing out age (Fig. T1 in midcortical depths in face- and character-selective areas correlates with CT.

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