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However, the mechanisms underlying cortical thinning during development are not well understood. Three developmental theories have been proposed to explain apparent cortical thinning across development: Pruning, myelination, and cortical morphology. Pruning is hypothesized to produce thinner cortex in adulthood and improve neural processing by optimizing brain circuits for particular operations.

This growth increases the efficiency of saltatory conduction and is thought to lead to faster and punctata reliable information transmission. Higher myelin content increases the intensity of voxels in T1-weighted anatomical MR retin a micro. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive as a retin a micro of pruning, increased myelination, and retin a micro alterations may result in thinner cortex in adulthood.

Additionally, mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from dMRI, depends on the size, density, and structure of the space within tissue through which water diffuses, providing additional insight into microstructural changes during development (21, 23). How can these MRI measurements differentiate the 3 developmental hypotheses. Although we cannot measure microstructure directly using in vivo MRI, we hypothesize that we can distinguish between developmental theories because their predicted effects on microstructure within a voxel differ.

Pruning is associated with developmental reductions in synaptic spines, dendrites, and neurons (7). Although the effect of pruning on T1 or MD are not fully understood, we hypothesize that pruning may lead to a reduction of macromolecular tissue volume fraction resulting in higher T1 and MD in cortices of adults compared to those of children.

In contrast, myelination predicts developmental changes to both white and gray matter. In the white matter, increased myelination retin a micro lower T1 (19, 24) and reduced MD (21, 23).

Thus, in gray matter, retin a micro of myelin predicts lower T1 (27, 28) and lower MD in cortices of adults compared to those of children, especially in deep layers. Finally, developmental changes in cortical morphology predict no developmental changes to either T1 or MD retin a micro gray or white matter. Instead, this hypothesis predicts morphological changes in the local cortical curvature and SA.

We tested retin a micro there are between-age group differences in T1 and MD in ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and whether these developments are related to cortical thickness (CT) measurements in the same individuals.

We focused on VTC as retin a micro model retin a micro for studying the mechanisms of CT development for 3 reasons. Thus, examination confirmed the development of CT within VTC allows testing if apparent cortical thinning is guided by uniform or heterogeneous mechanisms across a cortical expanse. We compared these measures across age groups to determine which factors develop and, if so, whether these developments are region-specific or region-general.

Finally, we tested whether apparent cortical thinning is linked to development of T1, Retin a micro, or curvature. We first verified that data quality was not lower in children than adults. After these exclusions, retin a micro was no difference across age groups.

These quality control analyses show that we can obtain high-quality measurements in children and that any developmental effects that we find are likely not due to nonspecific differences between age groups such as larger head motion or higher measurement noise in children than adults.

We localized fROIs even in our youngest participants (Fig. Cortical thickness (CT) decreases from age 5 to adulthood in category-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (VTC). CT is higher in children than adults in all fROIs. Our CT maps were consistent with prior ex vivo (46) and in vivo studies retin a micro (SI Appendix, Fig.

The smallest difference was observed in right CoS-places (0. For the latter measurement, we extended gray matter fROIs into the adjacent alcohol syndrome fetal matter (Fig.

Then we retin a micro mean T1 (Fig. Results were similar for fROIs from the same domain and for different retin a micro of 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm into white matter.

Data from pFus-faces and pOTS-chars are in SI Appendix, Fig. In FDWM, where T1 decreased with age, MTV concomitantly significantly increased with age (SI Appendix, Fig. Decreases in both T1 and MD in FDWM near face- and character-selective fROIs are consistent with the hypothesis that development of white matter near these fROIs is associated with increased myelination.

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